5 Major Types of Spectroscopy

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Spectroscopy is a field that studies the absorption and emission of lights and other radiations. The process is mainly working on calculating the wavelength of the radiation.

The study deals with the various interactions of particles such as electrons, protons, and ions. Spectroscopy also relates to the function of their energy-related to a collision. A spectroscopic analysis plays an essential role in the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum electrodynamics.

Here in this write-up, you will get to know more about spectroscopy and its types. There are five major types of spectroscopy that are discussed briefly below. But, before we start with the types, know about the principle on which spectroscopy is based.

Principle of Spectroscopy

Principle of Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the process that is used to know about the compounds and elements of molecules and atoms. It is measured by identifying the emitted and absorbed radiant energy using a sample object.

The beam of electromagnetic radiation such as UV rays is passed on the sample object. The result is measured through the wavelength of the spectrum that came from the electromagnetic rays applied from the energy source outside.

Now that we have studied the principle of spectroscopy, here are the five major types of spectroscopy that are discussed with their properties.

1. Raman Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy is concerned with the inelastic scattering of Photons that are also known as Raman scattering. Here the wavelength of the photon is changed when it connects with the sample. Raman scattering is performed using a source of monochromatic light that illuminates the sample.

When the monochromatic light interacts with the molecules and their vibrations, then the energy of the photons is shifted up and down. The accurate measurement of these shifts in the photons results in a detailed analysis of the chemical bonds of the sample.

2. Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Fluorescence Spectroscopy is one of the most important types of spectroscopy that is used to find the fluorescence of a sample. UV lights are used in fluorescence spectroscopy to analyze the organic compounds in medical, biochemical, and chemical research fields. Fluorescence Spectroscopy uses microfluorimetry to analyze the microscopic level.

Several Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy techniques are used to get the compound present in the air, water, or other media. First, choose Agilent absorption spectroscopy to get the correct and accurate performance of the spectroscopy conducted to study the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiations.

3. IR Spectroscopy

Infrared Spectroscopy is the type of spectroscopy that mainly deals with the electromagnetic spectrum that lies fully in the infrared region. The main focus is to work on absorbing spectroscopy. It is also used to identify the composition of chemicals of the material that is used as a sample.

The electromagnetic spectrum of the IR spectroscopy technique is divided into three types: near-infrared, far-infrared, and mid-infrared that range between different fundamental vibrations and other associated rotational vibrational structures.

4. UV Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy is also called reflectance and absorption spectroscopy. Through this, the ultraviolet and other visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and electrons correspond.

Therefore, this type of spectroscopy is used to examine the electronic structure of molecules used in a sample. It mainly identifies the compounds present in the sample. Also, find out the amino acid side chains, peptide bonds, and other prosthetic groups.

5. X-Ray Spectroscopy

X-Ray Spectroscopy was started with the development of X-Ray crystallography in 1912. A team of father and son William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg have started the making of diffraction patterns that are created by X-Rays passing through crystalline type materials. These materials were used to reduce the nature of the crystal structure.

The two types of X-Ray spectroscopy techniques that are used are- wavelength-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy. Both the methods are used to analyze the elements by measuring the X-Rays characteristics within a region that is narrow of the spectrum.

Therefore, these are the five major types of spectroscopy that deal with the study of electromagnetic radiation and find out the interaction between light and other radiations caused by an object. In addition, spectroscopy is used to determine the electronic and physical structure of several particles of atoms and molecules.

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